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Regulatory fit and negotiation: Effects of "Prevention-Buyer" and "Promotion-Seller" fit


Social Congnition


Organisational Behaviour

Authors / Editors

Appelt K;Zou X;Arora P;Higgins E T

Publication Year



We propose that the psychological effects of performing the buyer versus the seller role in a negotiation depend on regulatory fit (Higgins, 2000) with the demands of the role. When the negotiation emphasizes price, buyers want to pay only what is necessary (minimize monetary loss), which fits prevention focus concerns, whereas sellers want to attain as much money as possible (maximize monetary gain), which fits promotion focus concerns. Study 1 used a hypothetical price negotiation and found that planned demand was greater in the focus-role fit conditions (prevention-buyer; promotion-seller) than in the nonfit conditions. In Study 2, a real price negotiation, buyers adopted a nonloss/loss frame whereas sellers adopted a gain/nongain frame. Negotiators in the focus-role fit conditions subjectively experienced fit, had more demanding opening offers, and, when paired with another negotiator in focus-role fit, impassed more often. Extensions and applications of focus-role fit are discussed.

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